References – Omega Fats and Why They Are Important

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2. Calder P. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes. Nutrients. 2010;2(3):355-374. doi:10.3390/nu2030355

3. Martins JG. EPA but not DHA appears to be responsible for the efficacy of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009;28(5):525-42.

4. Innis S. Dietary omega 3 fatty acids and the developing brain. Brain Res. 2008;1237:35-43. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2008.08.078

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6. Petersen M, Pedersen H, Major-pedersen A, Jensen T, Marckmann P. Effect of fish oil versus corn oil supplementation on LDL and HDL subclasses in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(10):1704-8.

7. Eslick GD, Howe PR, Smith C, Priest R, Bensoussan A. Benefits of fish oil supplementation in hyperlipidemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2009;136(1):4-16.

8. Oelrich B, Dewell A, Gardner C. Effect of fish oil supplementation on serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and LDL subfractions in hypertriglyceridemic adults. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2013;23(4):350-357. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2011.06.003

9. Minihane A, Armah C, Miles E et al. Consumption of Fish Oil Providing Amounts of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid That Can Be Obtained from the Diet Reduces Blood Pressure in Adults with Systolic Hypertension: A Retrospective Analysis. J Nutr. 2016;146(3):516-523. doi:10.3945/jn.115.220475

10. Wang Q, Liang X, Wang L et al. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on endothelial function: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Atherosclerosis. 2012;221(2):536-543. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.01.006

11. Dinan T, Siggins L, Scully P, O’Brien S, Ross P, Stanton C. Investigating the inflammatory phenotype of major depression: Focus on cytokines and polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Psychiatr Res. 2009;43(4):471-476. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.06.003

12. Amminger G, Schäfer M, Papageorgiou K et al. Long-Chain ω-3 Fatty Acids for Indicated Prevention of Psychotic Disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(2):146. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.192

13. Amminger G, Schäfer M, Schlögelhofer M, Klier C, McGorry P. Longer-term outcome in the prevention of psychotic disorders by the Vienna omega-3 study. Nat Commun. 2015;6(1). doi:10.1038/ncomms8934

14. Stoll AL, Severus WE, Freeman MP, et al. Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56(5):407-12.

15. Da silva TM, Munhoz RP, Alvarez C, et al. Depression in Parkinson’s disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study of omega-3 fatty-acid supplementation. J Affect Disord. 2008;111(2-3):351-9.

16. Hill AM, Buckley JD, Murphy KJ, Howe PR. Combining fish-oil supplements with regular aerobic exercise improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(5):1267-74.

17. Du S, Jin J, Fang W, Su Q. Does Fish Oil Have an Anti-Obesity Effect in Overweight/Obese Adults? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(11):e0142652.

18. Parker HM, Johnson NA, Burdon CA, Cohn JS, O’connor HT, George J. Omega-3 supplementation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hepatol. 2012;56(4):944-51.

19. Faeh D, Minehira K, Schwarz JM, et al. Effect of fructose overfeeding and fish oil administration on hepatic de novo lipogenesis and insulin sensitivity in healthy men. Diabetes. 2005;54(7):1907-13.

20. Spadaro L, Magliocco O, Spampinato D, et al. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Dig Liver Dis. 2008;40(3):194-9.

21. Calder PC. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(6 Suppl):1505S-1519S.

22. Calder PC. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(6 Suppl):1505S-1519S.

23. Kiecolt-glaser JK, Belury MA, Andridge R, Malarkey WB, Glaser R. Omega-3 supplementation lowers inflammation and anxiety in medical students: a randomized controlled trial. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25(8):1725-34.

24. Fortin PR, Lew RA, Liang MH, et al. Validation of a meta-analysis: the effects of fish oil in rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Epidemiol. 1995;48(11):1379-90.

25. Van gelder BM, Tijhuis M, Kalmijn S, Kromhout D. Fish consumption, n-3 fatty acids, and subsequent 5-y cognitive decline in elderly men: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(4):1142-7.

26. Nilsson A, Radeborg K, Salo I, Björck I. Effects of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognitive performance and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy 51 to 72 years old subjects: a randomized controlled cross-over study. Nutr J. 2012;11:99.

27. Mangano KM, Sahni S, Kerstetter JE, Kenny AM, Hannan MT. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their relation with bone and muscle health in adults. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2013;11(3):203-12.

28. Noreen EE, Brandauer J, MacNabb MH. Supplemental fish oil decreases urinary excretion of a marker of bone resorption in healthy adults. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2011;8(Suppl 1):P14. Published 2011 Nov 7. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-8-S1-P14

29. Mickleborough TD, Ionescu AA, Rundell KW. Omega-3 Fatty acids and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10(6):1067-75.

30. Nagakura T, Matsuda S, Shichijyo K, Sugimoto H, Hata K. Dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with bronchial asthma. Eur Respir J. 2000;16(5):861-5.

31. Yang H, Xun P, He K. Fish and fish oil intake in relation to risk of asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(11):e80048.

32. Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002;56(8):365-79.

33. Gibson RA, Muhlhausler B, Makrides M. Conversion of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), with a focus on pregnancy, lactation and the first 2 years of life. Matern Child Nutr. 2011;7 Suppl 2:17-26.

34. Khanapure SP, Garvey DS, Janero DR, Letts LG. Eicosanoids in inflammation: biosynthesis, pharmacology, and therapeutic frontiers. Curr Top Med Chem. 2007;7(3):311-40.

35. Calder PC. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology? . Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;75(3):645-62.

36. Calder PC. Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1851(4):469-84.

37. Simopoulos AP. The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008;233(6):674-88.

38. Zurier RB, Rossetti RG, Jacobson EW, et al. gamma-Linolenic acid treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 1996;39(11):1808-17.

39. Kenny FS, Pinder SE, Ellis IO, et al. Gamma linolenic acid with tamoxifen as primary therapy in breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2000;85(5):643-8.

40. Whigham LD, Watras AC, Schoeller DA. Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(5):1203-11.

41. Garg A. High-monounsaturated-fat diets for patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67(3 Suppl):577S-582S.

42. Finucane OM, Lyons CL, Murphy AM, et al. Monounsaturated fatty acid-enriched high-fat diets impede adipose NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion and insulin resistance despite obesity. Diabetes. 2015;64(6):2116-28. 8.