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References – The 3 Best Benefits of Vitamin A

  2. Tang G. Bioconversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A in humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010;91(5):1468S-1473S.
  3. Sommer A. Vitamin a deficiency and clinical disease: an historical overview. The Journal of Nutrition. 2008;138(10):1835-1839.
  4. Wu J, Cho E, Willett WC, Sastry SM, Schaumberg DA. Intakes of lutein, zeaxanthin, and other carotenoids and age-related macular degeneration during 2 decades of prospective follow-up. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015;133(12):1415.
  5. Beatty S, Koh H-H, Phil M, Henson D, Boulton M. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Survey of Ophthalmology. 2000;45(2):115-134.
  6. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins c and e, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: areds report no. 8. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119(10):1417.
  7. Evans JR, Lawrenson JG. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for preventing age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group, ed. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Published online July 30, 2017.
  8. Sankaranarayanan R, Mathew B. Retinoids as cancer-preventive agents. IARC Sci Publ. 1996;(139):47-59.
  9. Sun S-Y, Lotan R. Retinoids and their receptors in cancer development and chemoprevention. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. 2002;41(1):41-55.
  10. Chen F, Hu J, Liu P, Li J, Wei Z, Liu P. Carotenoid intake and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies. Ann Hematol. 2017;96(6):957-965.
  11. Zhang X, Dai B, Zhang B, Wang Z. Vitamin A and risk of cervical cancer: A meta-analysis. Gynecologic Oncology. 2012;124(2):366-373.
  12. Yu N, Su X, Wang Z, Dai B, Kang J. Association of dietary vitamin a and β-carotene intake with the risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis of 19 publications. Nutrients. 2015;7(11):9309-9324.
  13. Tang J, Wang R, Zhong H, Yu B, Chen Y. Vitamin A and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. World J Surg Onc. 2014;12(1):130.
  14. Linnewiel-Hermoni K, Khanin M, Danilenko M, et al. The anti-cancer effects of carotenoids and other phytonutrients resides in their combined activity. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 2015;572:28-35.
  15. Mayne ST, Graham S, Zheng T. Dietary retinol: prevention or promotion of carcinogenesis in humans? Cancer Causes Control. 1991;2(6):443-450.
  16. Lee I-M, Cook NR, Manson JE, Buring JE, Hennekens CH. Β-carotene supplementation and incidence of cancer and cardiovascular disease: the women’s health study. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1999;91(24):2102-2106.
  17. Goralczyk R. SS-carotene and lung cancer in smokers: review of hypotheses and status of research. Nutrition and Cancer. 2009;61(6):767-774.
  18. Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, Balmes J, et al. The beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial: incidence of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality during 6-year follow-up after stopping -carotene and retinol supplements. JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2004;96(23):1743-1750.
  19. Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin a on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(18):1150-1155.
  20. Doldo E, Costanza G, Agostinelli S, et al. Vitamin a, cancer treatment and prevention: the new role of cellular retinol binding proteins. BioMed Research International. 2015;2015:1-14.
  21. Sommer A, Katz J, Tarwotjo I. Increased risk of respiratory disease and diarrhea in children with preexisting mild vitamin A deficiency. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1984;40(5):1090-1095.
  22. Stephensen CB. V ITAMINA, I NFECTION , AND I MMUNE F UNCTION *. Annu Rev Nutr. 2001;21(1):167-192.
  23. Beta-carotene – health encyclopedia – university of rochester medical center.