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References – Alcohol and Stress

  1. Papachristou, H., Nederkoorn, C., Havermans, R. C., van der Horst, M., & Jansen, A. (2021). Drinking to cope with negative emotions moderates the effect of stress on heavy drinking: A prospective diary study. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 130, 108469. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2021.108469
  2. Segerstrom, S. C., & Miller, G. E. (2004). Psychological stress and the human immune system: A meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Psychological Bulletin, 130(4), 601-630. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.130.4.601
  3. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2021). Alcohol and the immune system. Retrieved from
  4. Hyman, S. M., Garcia, M., Sinha, R. (2007). Gender specific associations between types of childhood maltreatment and the onset, escalation and severity of substance use in cocaine dependent adults. American Journal on Addictions, 16, 131–143. doi: 10.1080/10550490701375393
  5. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2021). Alcohol and the stress response. Retrieved from
  6. Brager, A. J., Ruby, C. L., Prosser, R. A., & Glass, J. D. (2010). Chronic alcohol disrupts sleep and the photic response of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 34(8), 1469-1478. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01226.x
  7. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2021). Alcohol’s effects on the body. Retrieved from
  8. Alonso, J., Alayo, I., Villegas, J. L., & Durá, E. (2021). Depression, anxiety and stress as key factors associated with alcohol use disorder. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10(3), 399. doi: 10.3390/jcm10030399
  9. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2021). Alcohol use disorder. Retrieved from
  10. Koob, G. F. (2019). Neurobiology of alcohol dependence. In Alcohol Use Disorders (pp. 3-17). Springer, Cham. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-01364-3_1
  11. Salmon, P. (2001). Effects of physical exercise on anxiety, depression, and sensitivity to stress: a unifying theory. Clinical psychology review, 21(1), 33-61.
  12. Penedo, F. J., & Dahn, J. R. (2005). Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity. Current opinion in psychiatry, 18(2), 189-193.
  13. Hölzel, B. K., Carmody, J., Vangel, M., Congleton, C., Yerramsetti, S. M., Gard, T., & Lazar, S. W. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry research: Neuroimaging, 191(1), 36-43.
  14. Khoury, B., Lecomte, T., Fortin, G., Masse, M., Therien, P., Bouchard, V., … & Hofmann, S. G. (2013). Mindfulness-based therapy: A comprehensive meta-analysis. Clinical psychology review, 33(6), 763-771.
  15. Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical psychology: Science and practice, 10(2), 125-143.
  16. Arch, J. J., & Craske, M. G. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder: current status. Journal of anxiety disorders, 22(7), 1107-1117.
  17. Witkiewitz, K., Bowen, S., Douglas, H., & Hsu, S. H. (2013). Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for substance craving. Addictive Behaviors, 38(2), 1563-1571.
  18. Kelly, J. F., Hoeppner, B. B., & Stout, R. L. (2011). Determining the relative importance of the mechanisms of behavior change within Alcoholics Anonymous: a multiple mediator analysis. Addiction, 106(12), 2174-2183.