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References – The Childhood Obesity Epidemic in America

  1. Controlling the global obesity epidemic. World Health Organization. 2015. Available at: Accessed October 23, 2015.
  2. Ogden C, Carroll M, Kit B, Flegal K. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. J Am Med. 2014;311(8):806-814.
  3. Freemark M. Pediatric obesity: etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. New York: Humana Press; 2011.
  4. Johnson R, Sehal M, et al. Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(4):899-906.
  5. Withrow D, Alter D. The economic burden of obesity worldwide: a systematic review of the direct costs of obesity. Obes Rev. 2011;12(2):131-141.
  6. Sebastiano A, Bagnasco A, Arpesella M, Vandoni M, Sasso L. Childhood obesity: an observational study. J Clin Nurs. 2014;23(19-20):2990-2992.
  7. Liu GC, Hannon TS. Reasons for the prevalence of childhood obesity: genetic predisposition and environmental influences. Endocrinologist. January/February 2005;15(1):49-55.
  8. Ruperez AI, Lopez-Guarnido, Olza J, et al. Paraoxonase 1 activities and genetic variation in childhood obesity. Br J Nutr. 2013;110(9):1639-47.
  9. Maes HH, Neale MC, Eaves LJ. Genetic and environmental factors in relative body weight and human adiposity. Behav Genet. 1997;27(4):325-351.
  10. Yokum S, Marti CN, Smolen A, Stice E. Relation of the miltilocus genetic composite reflecting high dopamine signaling capacity to future increases in BMI. Appetite. April 2014;87(1):38-45.
  11. Manco, B D. Genetics of pediatric obesity. Pediatrics. 2012;130(1):123-133.
  12. Vanhook J, Altman CE. Competitive food sales in schools and childhood obesity: a longitudinal study. Sociol Educ. 2012;85(1):23-39.
  13. The obesity epidemic and United States students. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2013. Available at: Accessed December 7, 2015.
  14. Spill MK, Birch LL, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Eating vegetables first: the use of portion size to increase vegetable intake in preschool children. AM J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(5):1237-1243.
  15. Tomkinson G, Annandales M, et al. Global changes in cardiovascular endurance of children and youth since 1964: systematic analysis of 25 million fitness test results from 28 countries. Circulation. 2013:128.
  16. Youth physical activity: the role of schools. Centers for disease control and prevention. 2015. Available at: Accessed June 6, 2015.
  17. Roger VL, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics-2012 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2012;125(1):e20e220.
  18. Hancox RJ, Milne BJ, Polton R. Association between child and adolescent television viewing and adult health: a longitudinal birth cohort study. Lancet. 2004;364(9430):257-262.
  19. Zimmerman FJ, Bell JF. Associations of television content type and obesity in children. Am J Public Health. 201;100(2):334-340.
  20. Nutrition and Health  Integrative weight management; a guide for clinicians. New York: Springer Science + Business Media; 2014.
  21. Dotinga R. Lots of TV may harm kids’ diet; children who watch the most television have worst eating habits, study finds. Consumer Health News. May 3012.
  22. Simen-Kapeu A, Veugelers PJ. Should public health interventions aimed at reducing childhood overweight and obesity e gender-focused? BMC Public Health. 2010;10(10):340.
  23. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010. J Am Med Assoc. 2012;10(10):340.
  24. Ferry RJ. The management of pediatric obesity and diabetes. New York: Humana Press; 2011.
  25. Wang Y, Lim H. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2012;24(3):176-188.
  26. Childhood overweight and obesity. World Health Organization. 2015. Available at: Accessed October 24, 2015.
  27. Gance-Cleveland B, Aldrich H, Schmiege S, Course C, Dandreaux D, Gilbert L. Clinician adherence to childhood overweight and obesity recommendations by race/ethnicity of the child. J Spec Pediatr Nurs. 2015;20(2):115-122.
  28. Cunningham SA, Kramer MT, Narayan VKM. Incidence of childhood obesity in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(5):403-411.
  29. Haboush A, Phebus T, Tanata-Ashby D, Zaikina-Montgomery H, Kindig K. Still unhealthy 2009: building community research to identify risk factors and health outcomes in childhood obesity. J Community Health. 2011;36(1):111-120.
  30. Huh SY, Rifas-Shiman SL, Taveras EM, Oken E, Gillman MW. Timing of solid food introduction and risk of obesity in preschool-aged children. Peditrics. March 2011;127(3):E544-E662.
  31. Birch LL. Early childhood obesity prevention policies. Washington D.C.: National Academies Press; 2011.
  32. Boin AC, Nozoe KT, Polesel DN, Andersen ML, Tufik S. The possible influence of sleep in childhood obesity. Eur J Clin Nutr. December 2013;68(2):281.
  33. Vorvick L. Body mass index: MedlinePlus medical encyclopedia. US national library of medicine. July 14, 2014. Available at: Accessed November 7, 2015.
  34. Canning PM, Courage ML, Frizzell LM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in a provincial population of Canadian preschool children. Can Med Assoc J. August 2004;171(3):240-242.
  35. Roth K, Kriemler S, Lehmacher W, Ruf KC, Graf C, Hebestreit H. Effects of a physical activity intervention in preschool children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. December 2015;47(12):2542-2551.
  36. Wald ER, Moyer SC, Eickhoff J, Ewing LJ. Treating childhood obesity in primary care. Clin Pediatr. November 2011;50(11):1010-1017.
  37. Childhood obesity prevention programs: comparative effectiveneness review and meta-analysis. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. June 10, 2013. Available at: Accessed December 2, 2015.
  38. Rubinstein TB, Mcginn AP, Wildman RP, Wylie-Rosett J. Disordered eating in adulthood is associated with reported weight loss attempts in childhood. Int J Eat Disorder. November 2010;43(7):663-666.
  39. Preventing childhood obesity: tips for parents and caretakers. American Heart Association. August 27, 2015. Available at: Accessed December 15, 2015.
  40. Waynforth D. Evolution of obesity  and why children so often choose the unhealthy eating option. Med Hypotheses. May 2010;74(5):934-936.
  41. Satter E. Internal regulation and the evolution of normal growth as the basis for prevention of obesity in children. J Am Diet Assoc. September 1996;96(9):860-864.
  42. Yavuz MH, van Ijzendoorn MH, Mesman J, van der Veek S. Interventions aimed at reducing obesity in early childhood: a meta-analysis of programs that involve parents. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. June 2015;56(6):677-692.
  43. West F, Sanders MR, Cleghorn GJ, Davies PS. Randomised clinical trial of a family-based lifestyle intervention for childhood obesity involving parents as the exclusive agents of change. Behav Res Ther. December 2010;48(12):1170-1179.
  44. Kuklina EV. Breastfeeding and cardiometabolic profile in childhood: how infant feeding, preterm birth, socioeconomic status, and obesity may fit into the puzzle. Circulation. January 2014;129(3):281-284.
  45. Deforche B, Haetens L, Debourdeaudhuij I. How to make overweight children exercise and follow the recommendations. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011;6(Suppl 1):35-41.
  46. Exercise and physical fitness: MedlinePlus. National Institute of Health. 2015. Available at: Accessed November 7, 2015.
  47. How exercise benefits the body. Nature. 265 2014;505(7483).
  48. Alderman B, Benham-Deal T, Jenkins J. Change in parental influence on children’s physical activity over time. J Phys Act Health. January 2010;7(1):60-67.